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Why the ERA Failed: Comfort Over Content in the Fight for Women’s Rights -

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The Extent to Which Parents Should Regulate Their Children’s Abortions -

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Separation without Justification: Parental Rights of Pregnant Juveniles in Correctional Facilities -

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American Women in Combat: What Israel and Canada Can Teach the United States About Integration -

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The Intersection of Lawlessness and Justice: Police Misconduct -

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A Recommendation for Eliminating Lifetime Tenure for Federal Judges -

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Monday, June 30, 2014

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Announcements

Article submissions are now open for the Journal! Deadline: December 19!

INTEGRATION AND INTERESTS: The Forgotten Role of Judge Walter Hoffman in Ending Massive Resistance in Virginia

Spring 2014 : Volume VII : Issue 3

*Author: Michael Payne, College of William & Mary

In the aftermath of Brown v. Board, the Supreme Court left it to school authorities to solve the logistical problems of integrating schools. Virginia subverted the aims of the Supreme Court and instead used local school authorities to delay integration, ultimately resulting in the closure of Norfolk’s public schools. As such, the burden of desegregating schools fell onto lower federal courts and local citizens’ groups. Norfolk serves as an instructive case study. District Judge Walter E. Hoffman and local business, student, and church groups were powerful advocates for desegregation. Together, they pressured Norfolk’s school board into reopening schools. This broke the will of segregationists, ultimately resulting in the end of massive resistance and the integration of Virginia schools.

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